Language: Lumbee English

Record Number Citation

Hannel, Eric. "Lumbee: Reinterpreting a native american identity through peoplehood." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanties and Social Sciences, Vol 75(12-A)(E), 2015.


Wolfram, Walt, and Jeffrey L. Reaser. "9. Lumbee English: Tar Heel American Indian Dialect." In:Talkin’ Tar Heel: How our voices tell the story of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: UNC P, 2014. Pp. 216-242.


Scott, Chris, and Kathleen Brown. "Rising above my raisin'? Using heuristic inquiry to explore the effects of Lumbee dialect on ethnic identity development." American Indian Quarterly 32.4 (2008): 485-521.


Coggshall, Elizabeth L. “The prosodic rhythm of two varieties of Native American English.” NWAV 36. 2008.


Scott, Christopher E. "An investigation of the impact of speaking the Lumbee dialect on the academic achievement and identity development of Native American college students." Dissertation. U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008.


Clarke, James F. "Walking in balance: Looking back while moving forward. Rediscovering the Lumbee language and moving into the 21st century." Thesis (MA, Liberal studies) Winston Salem, NC: Wake Forest University, 2007. 57p.


Singh, Renee. "Our roots go back to Roanoke: Investigating the link between the Lost Colony and the Lumbee People of North Carolina [Unpublished undergraduate student essay]." Prized Writing [UC Davis] 2006.


Coggshall, Elizabeth Learn. “Differential Vowel Accommodation among Two Native American Groups.” M. A. North Carolina State U, 2006.


Locklear, Chad. "Swamp Posse." Pembroke Magazine 38 (2006): 172-81.


Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Constructing ethnicity in interaction.” Journal of sociolinguistics 8.2 (May 2004): 163-195. 6 tables, 22 extracts.


Wolfram, Walt, Clare Dannenberg, Stanley Knick, and Linda Oxendine. Fine in the world: Lumbee language in time and place. Pembroke, NC: Museum of the Native American Resource Center, UNC-Pembroke, 2002. 92 pages. Key source


Dannenberg, Clare J. Sociolinguistic constructs of ethnic identity: the syntactic delineation of an American Indian English. (Publications of the American Dialect Society, no. 87) N.p.: Duke UP, 2002. 106 pages. Annotation forthcoming.


Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “On the nature of isolated and post-isolated dialects: Innovation, variation and differentiation.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 6.1 (2002): 64-85.


Torbert, Benjamin. “Tracing Native American language history through consonant cluster reduction: the case of Lumbee English.” American Speech 76.4 (Winter 2001): 361-387. 35 references.


Kerns, Schnele, and Sheila J. Bridges. A dialectal application of Minspeak: the case of a 10-year-old Lumbee Indian male with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome. In: Augmentative & Alternative Communication (discipline-wide sessions). ASHA Leader 6.15 (August 29, 2001): 17 (13 pages).



Wolfram, Walt. “From the brickhouse to the swamp.” American Language Review July/August 2001: 34-38. Key source


Herman, David. “Spatial reference in narrative domains.” Text 21.4 (2001): 515-41.


Kerns, Ursulla H. "A comparison of lexical items in Lumbee Vernacular English from the Pembroke and Prospect communities." Thesis. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central U, 2001. 59 pages.


Herman, David. “Story logic in conversational and literary narratives.” Narrative 9.2 (2001): 130-37.


Forde, Kathy Roberts. “On the swamps: the politics of language, landscape and Lumbee identity.” The Independent Weekly (Durham, NC) December 6, 2000.


Wolfram, Walt, Becky Childs, and Benjamin Torbert. “Tracing language history through consonant cluster reduction: comparative evidence from isolated dialects.” Southern Journal of Linguistics 24.1 (Spring 2000): 16-40.


Herman, David. “Pragmatic constraints on narrative processing: Actants and anaphora resolution in a corpus of North Carolina ghost stories.” Journal of pragmatics 32 (2000): 959-1001.


Locklear, Tammie Sue. "Emergent literacy skills of Native American Lumbee children of Robeson County, North Carolina." North Carolina Central U, 2000.


Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Redrawing ethnic dividing lines through linguistic creativity.” American Speech 75.4 (2000): 357-359.


Torbert, Benjamin Charles. “Native American language history traced through consonant cluster reduction: the case of Lumbee English.”  Thesis.  Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 2000. 61 pages.


Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Investigating intra-ethnic differentiation: /ay/ in Lumbee Native American English.” Language Variation and Change 12 (2000): 141-174.  


Indian by birth: the Lumbee dialect. Produced by Walt Wolfram. Narrated by Linda Oxendine. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State University; Pembroke, NC: Museum of the Native American Resource Center, and Department of American Indian Studies, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2000.


Wolfram, Walt. “On the construction of vernacular dialect norms.” CLS 36: The panels. The proceedings from the panels of the Chicago Linguistic Society’s thirty-sixth meeting. Volume 36-2. Ed. Arika Okrent and John P. Boyle. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 2000. Pages 335-358.


Hammonds, Renee. “People's perceptions of Lumbee Vernacular English.” Thesis. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central U, 2000. 43 pages


Dannenberg, Clare J. “Grammatical and phonological manifestations of null copula in a tri-ethnic contact situation.” Journal of English Linguistics 27.1 (December 1999): 356-370.


Montgomery, Michael, and Margaret Mishoe. “'He bes took up with a Yankee girl and moved up there to New York': the verb bes in the Carolinas and its history.” American Speech 74.3 (Fall, 1999): 240-281.


Wolfram, Walt, and Jason Sellers. “Ethnoliguistic marking of past be in Lumbee Vernacular English.” Journal of English Linguistics 27.2 (June, 1999): 94-114.


Boughman, Arvis. “The Lumbee language is back!” Carolina Indian Voice. 1 April 1999:2.


Boughman, Arvis. “The Lumbee language is coming back?” Carolina Indian Voice 25 March 1999:2.


Dannenberg, Clare J. “Sociolinguistic constructs of ethnic identity: the syntactic delineation of Lumbee English.” Diss. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. 167 pages.


Allsbrook, Dana G. “Idiomatic structures in the Lumbee dialect.” North Carolina Central U, 1999.


Herman, David. “Toward a socionarratology: new ways of analyzing natural-language narratives.” In: Narratologies: new perspectives on narrative analysis. Ed. David Herman. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1999. Pages 218-246.


Wolfram, Walt, and Clare Dannenberg.  “Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: the case of Lumbee American Indian English.”   English World-Wide 20.2 (1999): 179-216.


Joyce, Allison Harrington. "Language assessment of Lumbee Indian children in North Carolina." North Carolina Central U, 1999.


“Talk of the triangle: listening to the Lumbee.” Spectator Online 19 December 1998.


Dannenberg, Clare, and Walt Wolfram. “Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: be(s) in Lumbee English.” American Speech 73.2 (Summer 1998): 139-159.


“Towards the understanding of ethnic distinction and r-lessness in multi-ethnic southern communities: a study of Lumbee Indian Vernacular English.” Draft. 17 pages.


Hatch, Leah Joy. “An analysis of irregular verb usage in Lumbee English.” Project (Master of Education). North Carolina Central U, 1998. 36 pages.


Deloria, Vine, Jr. “Introduction.” Speaking of Indians. By Ella Deloria. Bison Books Edition. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1998. Pages xv-xvii.


Wolfram, Walt. American English: dialects and variation. Malden, M.A.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Pp. 182-83.


Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Intra-ethnic differentiation and cross-ethnic English.” Paper presented at NWAVE 26 Conference, October 1997. 32 pages.


Dannenberg, Clare J., and Walt Wolfram. “The roots of Lumbee language.” Revised draft. Unpublished report. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State U, August 1997. 38 pages. 40 references.


Wolfram, Walt, and Jason Sellers. “Alternative regularization patterning and ethnic marking in a tri-ethnic southern community.” Paper presented at the Southeastern Conference on Linguistics 56, Charlotte, N.C., April 1997. 16 pages.


Jackson, Stacie Jane. “A comparative profile of vernacular phonology: Lumbee Vernacular English and African-American Vernacular English in Robeson County.” Thesis.  North Carolina Central University, 1997.


Dannenberg, Clare J. “Grammatical and phonological manifestations of null copula in a tri-ethnic contact situation.” Paper presented at 1997 NWAVE session on Grammatical Structures in AAVE.


Locklear, Hayes A.; Natalie Schilling-Estes, Walt Wolfram, and Clare J. Dannenberg. A dialect dictionary of Lumbee English. Raleigh, NC; The North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State U, June 1996. 18 pages.


Dannenberg, Clare Jacobs. “Moving toward a diachronic and synchronic definition of Lumbee English.” Thesis. North Carolina State University, 1996. 105 pages. Key source


Wolfram, Walt. “Delineation and description in dialectology: the case of perfective I'm in Lumbee English.” American Speech 71.1 (Spring 1996): 5-26.


Miller, Jason Paul. “Mixed sociological alignment and ethnic identity: r-lessness in a Native American community.” Thesis. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1996. 84 pages.


Wolfram, Walt, Natalie Schilling-Estes, Roscoe Johnson, James Peterson, and Yancey R. Hall.  “Dialect mixing and ethnic identity in Lumbee English.” SECOL 50. Memphis, T.N.. April 1994.


Barton, Lew.  “List of Common Lumbee Terms.”  Unpublished typescript.  N.d.  9 p.


Payne, Alton W. “‘A Fool’s Errand’: The Discovery of a Proto-Lumbee Language. The True Origin of the Lumbee Indians.” Unpublished typescript. Sept. 1989. 34 p.


Brewer, Jeutonne, and Robert W. Reising.  “Tokens in the Pocosin: Lumbee English in North Carolina.”  Essays in Native American English. San Antonio: Trinity U, 1982.  Also in American Speech 57.2 (1982): 108-20.


Snow, Claude H.  “An Annotated Transcription of Eight Lumbee Indian Sermons in Upper Robeson County, North Carolina.”  Thesis.  U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1978.


Pound, Louise. “Miscellany.” American Speech 21.3 (October 1946): 227-238.