American English: dialects and variation

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Wolfram, Walt. American English: dialects and variation. Malden, M.A.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Pp. 182-83.


Brief overview Robeson County's tri-ethnic population and the Lumbee use of finite be(s).  Concludes that “the peculiar mix of dialect features in Lumbee Vernacular English clearly shows how a cultural group can maintain a distinct ethnic identity by molding past and present dialect features in a way which symbolically indicates - and helps constitute - their cultural uniqueness even when the ancestral language has been lost” (p. 183).

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