Dialect mixing and ethnic identity in Lumbee English.

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Wolfram, Walt, Natalie Schilling-Estes, Roscoe Johnson, James Peterson, and Yancey R. Hall.  “Dialect mixing and ethnic identity in Lumbee English.” SECOL 50. Memphis, T.N.. April 1994.


Addresses similarities and differences between Lumbee dialect and the dialects of African Americans and Euro Americans in Robeson County.  The authors, through the North Carolina Language and Life Project, conducted (in an initial phase) 46 interviews with Lumbee, African American, and Euro American speakers in three age groups. Table 1 shows some results of these interviews and similar interviews done in the Outer Banks. Table 2, “A Comparative Phonological Profile of Some Relevant Vernacular Varieties,”  compare the four populations on several grammatical structures. The authors comment on similarities between Lumbee English and that of the Outer Banks and Appalachia.

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