Lumbee history

Record Number Citation

Emanuel, Ryan E. “Water in the Lumbee world: A river and its people in a time of change.” Environmental history 24 no. 1 (January 2019): 25–51.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. The Lumbee Indians: An American struggle. U of North Carolina P, 2018.


"Quilt sewn by Lowrie’s daughter donated to UNCP museum [Editor]." Richmond County Daily Journal [Rockingham, NC]. January 5, 2018.


Shiles, Bob. "Tribal Council wants Lumber River renamed to honor Lumbee." Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] September 21, 2017.


"Lumbee youth to present films [Staff report]." The Robesonian [Lumberton, NC]. July 1, 2017.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "On the antebellum fringe: Lumbee Indians, slavery, and removal." Native South, vol. 10, 2017, pp. 40-59.


Banks, Dennis. "Tribute to my Indian friends [letter to the editor]. Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] July 26, 2016.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "Lumbee Indian women: Historical change and cultural adaptation." In: American Indian Women of Proud Nations: Essays on History, Language, and Education. Ed. Cherry M. Beasley, Mary A. Jacobs, and Ulrike Wiethaus. New York: Peter Lang, 2016. Pages 9-22.


Pollitt, Phoebe. “The Lumbee Indian Nurses.” Minority Nurse, Springer Publishing Company. November 19, 2015.


Locklear, James. “Painting captures Lumbee-Klan clash.” The Fayetteville Observer (Fayetteville, NC). October 19, 2015


Carter, Stephen L. “Rename Redskins after NC Lumbee.” Newsobserver [Raleigh, NC] August 25, 2014.


Oxendine, Linda. "Remembering Adolph Dial: A man for all seasons." Robesonian (Lumberton, NC) September 2, 2013.


 Perdue, Theda. “The legacy of Indian removal.” Journal of Southern history 78. 1 (February 2012): 3–36.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2010.   Key source


Locklear, Lawrence T. "Down by the ol' Lumbee: An investigation into the origin and use of the word 'Lumbee' prior to 1952." Native South 3 (2010): 103-17.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "Telling our own stories: Lumbee history and the federal acknowledgment process." American Indian Quarterly 33.4 (2009): 499-522.


Our People: The Lumbee. DVD. 28.00 min. Pembroke, NC: Native American Resource Center, UNC-Pembroke (in collaboration with the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs), 2009.


Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "Indians, Southerners, and Americans: Race, tribe, and nation during ‘Jim Crow’." Native South 2 (2009): 1-22.


Bailey, Anna. “How Scuffletown became Indian Country: Political change and transformations in Indian identity in Robeson County, North Carolina, 1865-1956.” Dissertation. U of Washington, 2008.


Gonzalez, Angela, Judy Kertesz, and Gabrielle Tayak. "Eugenics as Indian Removal: Sociohistorical Processes and the De(con)struction of American Indians in the Southeast." The Public Historian 29.3 (2006): 53-67.


Singh, Renee. "Our roots go back to Roanoke: Investigating the link between the Lost Colony and the Lumbee People of North Carolina [Unpublished undergraduate student essay]." Prized Writing [UC Davis] 2006.


Maynor, Malinda. "Native American identity in the segregated South: The Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, 1872-1956." Dissertation. U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2005.


University of Florida. Southeastern Indian Oral History Project (2005). P O Box 115215, Gainesville, FL, 32611. 1-352-392-7168. Key source


Yeadon, Tim. “Hundreds mourn, remember Revels.” Greensboro News & Record (Greensboro, NC). July 14, 2003


Maynor, Malinda M. "People and place: Croatan Indians in Jim Crow Georgia, 1890-1920." Thesis. U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2002. 43 p. 100 references (primary and secondary). Key source


Maynor, Malinda, Judy Kertesz, and Ian Aronson. “Lumbee history.” The Appalachian Quarterly [Wise County Historical Society, VA] 4.2 (June 1999): 82-93.


Anderson, Ryan K. “Lumbee kinship, community, and the success of the Red Banks Mutual Association.” American Indian Quarterly 23.2 (Spring 1999): 39-58. Key source


Sider, Gerald M. Lumbee Indian histories: Race, ethnicity and Indian identity in the Southern United States.


White, Wes. "Local History References and Lumbee Indian References in the Lumberton, NC Robesonian, 1897, 1900-1939." Unpublished manuscript. N.D.


Lumbee River Legal Services. The Lumbee Petition.  Prepared in cooperation with the Lumbee Tribal Enrollment Office.  Julian T. Pierce and Cynthia Hunt-Locklear, authors.  Jack Campisi and Wesley White, consultants.  Pembroke, NC: Lumbee River Legal Services, 1987.


Duensing, Ed, and Helen M. Scheirbeck, comps. Campfires: Legends and Tales of the Eastern Indians. Lumberton: Div. of Compensatory Education, Title IV, Part A, Indian Education Project, Robeson County Board of Education, 1985. [PSU-MLL]


Barton, Bruce. An Indian manifesto: Bruce Barton’s The best of—As I see it: The sometimes irreverent but always honest columns as they appeared in the “Carolina Indian Voice” newspaper over the last ten years by Bruce Barton, editor; with some “Musings” by Ol’ Reasonable Locklear. A special ten year anniversary edition, 1973-1983. Pembroke, NC: The Carolina Indian Voice, 1983.


Robeson County Compensatory Indian Education Project. “Oral histories of Lumbee Indian elders.” Audiotapes. 1982. [Around 70 tapes.]


“Lumbee Regional Development Association, Inc. Perspective.” Unpublished typescript. 10 p. Attachment D-6, Pembroke Indian Alcohol Project grant application, 8/1/78 (See entry 484.)


Dial, Adolph L., and David K. Eliades. The only land I know: A history of the Lumbee Indians. San Francisco: Indian Historian P, 1975.  Rpt.


Evans, W. McKee. To die game: the story of the Lowry Band, Indian guerillas of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1971. Reprinted, with a new foreword by James M. McPherson. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1995 Key source


Dial, Adolph L. The Adolph Dial tapes. Interviews recorded 1969-1971. Transfer project completed in 1997. Located at the Native American Resource Center, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, PO Box 1510 UNCP, Pembroke, NC 28372-1510 Phone: 910.521.6282 E-mail:


Barton, Lew. The most ironic story in American history: An authoritative, documented history of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. Charlotte, NC: Associated Printing Corp., 1967.


Larson, Norma (interviewer). North Carolina's oldest inhabitants. Interview with B. W. "Billy" Lowery. North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC, 1958-1959.


Dunlap, A. R.  “The Speech of the Croatans.”  American Speech 21.3 (Oct. 1946): 231-32.


Furman, McDonald. “Jim Smiling a Redbone. An Interesting Patriarch of Unique People in Privateer.” State (Columbia, SC). May 27, 1897


Norment, Mary C. The Lowrie History, As Acted in Part by Henry Berry Lowrie, the Great North Carolina Bandit. With Biographical Sketches of His Associates. Being a Complete History of the Modern Robber Band in the County of Robeson and State of North Carolina. Wilmington: Daily Journal Printer, 1875. Key source