Industrialization Vocabulary

INDUSTRIALIZATION - to build and operate factories and businesses in a city, region, country, etc

DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION - the reduction or destruction of a nation's or region's industrial capacity

TIMBER - wood prepared for use in building and carpentry

DEFORESTATION - the action or process of clearing of forests

CLEAR CUTTING - removal of all the trees in a stand of timber

UNDERGROUND MINING - Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. Sub-surface mining can be classified by the type of access shafts used, the extraction method or the technique used to reach the mineral deposit. Drift mining utilizes horizontal access tunnels, slope mining uses diagonally sloping access shafts, and shaft mining utilizes vertically pushed shafts

SURFACE MINING - is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed

BITUMINOUS COAL - is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite

COMPANY TOWN - is a place where practically all stores and housing are owned by the one company that is also the main employer. Company towns are often planned with a suite of amenities such as stores, churches, schools, markets and recreation facilities

TOURISM - is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours

AGRICULTURE - the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products

COMMONS - the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth

TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS - an economic theory of a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action