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Powers-Beck, Jeffrey. “ ‘Chief.’ ” American Indian Quarterly 25.4 (Fall 2001): 508- (32 pages).


Brief mention. The articles explain that the numerous Native Americans who played major and minor league baseball from 1897-1945 were called “chief ” and, although they faced fewer barriers to participation than blacks, they “endured an integration experience” (508). The author quotes Joseph Oxendine, who was called “chief ” when he played minor league baseball. Oxendine explains, “most Indians do not want to be called ‘chief ’ because it demeans the significance of the [tribal] chief, and it’s a constant reminder, like saying, ‘Hey, Indian’ ” (note 9).

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Joseph Oxendine | Lumbee baseball players | Stereotypes