River spirits: a collection of Lumbee writings.

Record Number: 

Knick, Stanley, ed. River spirits: a collection of Lumbee writings. Pembroke, NC: Native American Resource Center Publications, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2003. 174 pages. Key source


This diverse, inclusive collection of poems, plays, essays, and short stories represents the thoughts and feelings of 49 individuals on various aspects of Lumbee identity, history, and life. Stanley Knick’s insightful introduction explains that by including the works of a variety of individuals—most still living and many not previously published—the collection can “open a window into Lumbee culture.” The works were not the result of a literary competition. They were submitted either by the authors themselves or for them by a child or parent. Some of the previously published writers include Lew Barton, Connee Brayboy, Barbara Braveboy-Locklear, Delano Cummings, Adolph Dial, Malinda Maynor, and Julia Lowry Russell. Brief identifications of the authors are given at the end of the book.

The following are some of the themes and topics dealt with in the writings:

  • Role of the poet or writer
  • Military service and war
  • Love
  • Remaining true to Native American identity and values
  • Nature
  • Interracial marriage
  • Oppression by the dominant race or by the government
  • “Going to town” (Lumberton)
  • Segregation
  • Federal recognition
  • Rural life
  • Faith
  • Hair
  • Death and funerals
  • The Lumbee River
  • Veterans
  • Old Main
  • Henry Berry Lowry
  • Grandparents
  • Family life
  • Ancestors
  • Women
  • Children
  • Elders
  • Fishing
  • Ku Klux Klan routing of 1958
  • Lost Colony
  • Alcoholism
  • Discrimination
  • Tribal origins
  • Henderson Oxendine
Key Source: 
First Appeared in 1994 Book?: 
Publication Type: 
These libraries have this material. Check the library catalog of the library of your choice to see if the material is available.
View purchase information at UNC-Pembroke's Museum of the Native American Resource Center website