Appendix E. Lumbee Indians in the first federal census of Robeson—1790

From: Britt, Morris F. Appendices to Implosion: A history of the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina. Unpublished book-length manuscript.

Dr. Britt has specified the following usage limitations: Not to be reprinted for publication without written consent of the author. May be used privately.

All those listed in Section A classified themselves as "All other Free Persons" unless indicated otherwise. Section B contains "all other Free Persons" living in homes other than their own. Total = 277. Robeson County lists 533 slaves.


NameNumber in householdOther notes
Atkins, SilasListed himself "over age 16," as White, with 2 white females, 2 "other" and 8 slaves. 
Branch, Randal11land west of Indian Swamp in 1790; Deed
Book B, pp. 247-248
Braveboy, Lydia7Joshua Braveboy owned land on the Mill prong of the Raft Swamp, Deed Book A, pp. 72-74;the name was later chansgd to Brayboy in current
Brooks, Betty4 
Bussell, William5William Bussell sold land on Gum Swamp and the Buck Pond to a blacksmith named Duncan Mc Lauchlan 6 April 1792, Deed Book C, pp. 43-441
Carter, Emanuel5 
Chavers [Chavis], Ishmael10owned land south of Drounding Creek
and south of Ashpole Swamp in 1785, Deed Book A, pp. 35-371
Chavers [Chavis], Richard3 
Cox, Gilbert6Owned 8 slaves [owned land west of
Drounding Creek purchased in 1787, Deed Book A, pp. 37 -39; an additional 200 acres on same Location, Deed Book B, pp. 270-271; land north of Ten Mile Swamp, Deed Book B, p. 313; and 340 acres in 1793 in Mount Pleasant Community called Matthews Bluff from Abraham Barnes, Deed Book C, pp. 302-303.]
Cumbo, Cannon11Owned 1 slave
Cumbo, Gilbert1 
Cumbo, John3[The Cumbo familes lived near each other]
Cumbo, Nath'l4 
Dees, Arthur9Listed as White but with a frequent Lumbee name.
Evans, Richard4 
Hammonds, Jacob4

[Jacob and John Hammond/Hammons owned land West of Saddletree Swamp, adjacent to each other, patented 26 Nov. 1789, Deed Book B, p. 100]

Hammonds, John9[Patented land on Saddletree Swamp before 1786, Deed Book A, p. 8-10; an unlisted Richard Hammons patented land south of Drowning Creek 9 Nov. 1784, Deed Book C, pp. 311-313].
Harding [Hardin], Soloman6 
Hunt, James4 
Hunt Lewis3 
Irvin, Betty2[Jared Irvin/Ervin owned land northeast of Little Marsh which was sold to Archd. Little, Sr. in 1789, 1789, Deed Book A, pp. 306-307; Jared sold a slave woman, Sabery and her two children, Bett and Jim, to Joseph Wood for 86 pounds, l0 shilling and 9 pence in 1791, Book C, pp. 26-27).].

James, Solomon

9including 1 White Female [Solomon James owned land north and northeast of Drounding Creek in 1773, Deed Book B, p. 29-301
Johnston, Isaac1 
Johnston, James1 
Kersey, America3"Free White Females"
Kersey, Betty3[The Kersey families lived close together]
Kersey, Peter7 
Kersey, Redding1White poll only
Kersey, William4 
Layton, Henry1With I WFM 16 + [Name not found in deed indexes or the 1850 census of Robeson]
Lockileer, Jacob6* 
Lockileer, John1 
Lockileer, John4 
Lockileer, Joseph6 
Lockileer, Malcolm6 
Lockileer, Randall10 
Lockileer, Rober9 
Lockileer, Samuel1 
Lockileer, William11 
Lowry, James6with 3 slaves [Next door to Charles Oxendine and near Richard Chavers]
Newsom, Ethelred3[Not found in current Robeson County]
Oxendine, Benjamin1 
Oxendine, Charles1 
Oxendine, Charles11 
Oxendine, John1 

Ransome, Simon

6[Miller for John Cade Esq. in 1788]
Revil[s], Burwel1 
Revil[s], Edmund9 
Roberts, Ishmael10[lived on Saddletree Swamp adj. Jacob Blount, John Baggett and Thomas lvy in 1788]
Scott, John1 
Stapleton, Alexr7

[On Arons Swamp1783-1788]

Tutor, Dread3[James Lowrey sold 100 acres on Juniper Branch to Maurice Tuder 23 Jan. 1791 for 20 pounds, Deed Book B, pp. 286-291; on 9 July 1792, Tuder sold the same 100 acres back to James Lowry for 30 pounds, Deed Book C, pp. 82-83. Considering Lowry's price of patenting the land, he appears to have made 10 pounds on the transactionin one year and retained the property for resale]
Valentine, Charles5[Listed as a "free Negroe" in the 1768 Tax List of Bladen in McKissack's tax district].

B. "Free other" living with White families

NameNumber in HouseholdOther Notes
Alford, Jacob17 slaves
Atkins, Silas (see above)
Barnes, Elias68 slaves
Braswell, Arthur12 slaves
Bullard, John1Possibly Lumbee
Cade, John517 slaves
Cade, Stephen13 slaves
Campbell, Hugh22 slaves
Evans, Richard4 
Hailes, Robert2 
Humphrey, Lucy15 slaves; elderly widow of Chambers Humphrey of Raft Swamp.
Kennedy,William11 slave
Kitchen, Joseph1 
Oquin, Charity1 
Pittman, Newett1 
Thompson, William15 slaves, lived on Back Swamp
Willis, John114 slaves


A total of 35 Lumbee Indians lived and probably worked in what appear to be 18 predominantly White homes. Some were indentured servants and some were live-in help for the elderly. Ten of the homes also had slaves and probably had large plantations or households to be maintained which suggests that the Lumbees were probably household help or farm workerswho were boarding there.

We do not know with certainty that all of the above 277 individuals listed as "All other Free persons" were Lumbee because some may have been free Blacks. It is logical that in Robeson most were Lumbees.