“Bureau of Indian Affairs. Final Determination that the United Lumbee Nation of North Carolina and America, Inc. Does Not Exist as an Indian Tribe. April 19, 1985.” Federal Register 50.85 (2 May 1985): 18746.
The ULN did not satisfy five of the seven BIA criteria for federal acknowledgement. Their documentation did not prove antecedent Lumbees in California or ties to Lumbees who migrated to California. Membership was too dispersed to be called an Indian community, and there was no tribal authority over members. The ULN granted membership to people who did not meet the their requirement of 1/16 Indian blood.
First Appeared in 1994 Book?: